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Publications and further reading

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Find details of publications and further reading relating to the Long Term Sludge Experiment.

Use the following links to navigate : reports relating to the project, scientific publications, PhD thesis, other reports relating to waste water sludge and external websites

Reports relating to LTSE

Final report for LTSE experiment (Phase III)

SOAFD (Scottish Government) report on Impact of Long Term Sewage Sludge Additions to Biological Function in Scottish Soils

Scientific Publications

Anderson, I.C., Parkin, P.I. and Campbell, C. (2008). DNA- and RNA-derived assessments of fungal community composition in soil amended with sewage sludge rich in cadmium, copper and zinc. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40, 9, 2358-2365.

Bacon, J.R. and Hewitt, I.J. (2005). Heavy metals deposited from the atmosphere on upland Scottish soils: Chemical and lead isotope studies of the association of metals with soil components. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69,1, 19-33.

Bacon, J.R., Campbell, C.D., Coull, M.C., Chambers, B.J. Gibbs, P.A., Chaudri, A.M. et al.(2001) A long-term study of the effects of heavy metals in sewage sludge on soil fertility and soil microbial activity. In R.K. Dhir, M.C. Limbachiya, M.J. McCarthy (Eds.), Recycling and Reuse of Sewage Sludge, Thomas Telford, London, pp. 87–96.

Bhogal, A., Nicholson, F.A., Chambers, B.J. and Shepherd, M.A. (2003). Effects of past sewage sludge additions on heavy metal availability in light textured soils: implications for crop yields and metal uptakes. Environmental Pollution 121, 3, 413-423

Bruce, L. McCracken, D., Foster, G., Aitken, M. (1999) The effects of sewage sludge on grassland euedaphic and hemiedaphic collembolan populations. Pedobiologia  43 (3) 209-220.

Campbell, CD, Chapman, SJ, Cameron, CM, Davidson, MS, Potts, JM (2003) A rapid microtiter plate method to measure carbon dioxide evolved from carbon substrate amendments so as to determine the physiological  profiles of soil microbial communities by using whole soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69 (6), 3593-3599

Chaudri, A.M, McGrath, S., Gibbs, P., Chambers. B., Carlton-Smith, C., Bacon, J., Campbell, C.D. and Aitken, M.N. (2007). Cadmium availability to wheat grain in soils treated with sewage sludge or metal salts. Chemophere 68, 8, 1415-1423.

Chaudri, A. McGrath, S., Gibbs, P., Chambers, B., Carlton-Smith, C., Bacon, J., Campbell, C. and Aitken, M. (2008) Population size of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii in long-term field experiments with sewage sludge cake, metal-amended liquid sludge or metal salts: Effects of zinc, copper and cadmium. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40, (7), 1670-1680.

Cole, L.J., McCracken, D.I., Foster, G.N and Aitken, M.N (2001). Using Collembola to assess the risks of applying metal-rich sewagesludge to agricultural land in western Scotland. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 83, 1-2, 177-189. (SAC – Auchincruive)

D.A. Abaye, K. Lawlor, P.R. Hirsch, P.C. Brookes Changes in the microbial community of an arable soil caused by long-term metal contamination. European Journal of Soil Science, 56 (2005), pp. 93–102

E. Bååth, M. Díaz-Ravińa, Å. Frostegård, C.D. Campbell. Effect of metal-rich sludge amendments on the soil microbial community. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64 (1998), pp. 238–245.

E. Witter, K.E. Giller, S.P. McGrath Long-term effects of metal contamination on soil micro-organisms Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 26 (1994), pp. 421–422 – need to consult jnl for this one…

Gibbs, P.A., Chambers. B.J., Chaudri, A.M., McGrath, S.P., Carlton-Smith, C.H., Bacon, J.R., Campbell, C.D. and Aitken, M.N (2006). Initial results from a long-term, multi-site field study of the effects on soil fertility and microbial activity of sludge cakes containing heavy metals. Soil Use and Management, 22 (2006), pp. 11–21

Griffiths, B.S., Hallett, P.D., Kuan, H.L., Y. Pitkin,Y. and Aitken, M.N. (2005) Biological and physical resilience of soil amended with heavy metal-contaminated sewage sludge European Journal of Soil Science, 56, pp. 197–205. 

Knapp, C. W., McCluskey, S. M., Singh, B. K., Campbell, C. D., Hudson, G., Graham, D. W. (2011) Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundances Correlate with Metal and Geochemical Conditions in Archived Scottish Soils, PLOS ONE, 6 (11).

Macdonald, C. A., Campbell, C. D., Bacon, J. R., Singh, B. K.(2008) Multiple profiling of soil microbial communities identifies potential genetic markers of metal-enriched sewage sludge. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 65 (3), 555-564.

Macdonald, C. A., Clark, I. M., Hirsch, P. R., Zhao, F.-J., McGrath, S. P. (2011) Development of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection and Quantification of Rhizobium leguminosarum Bacteria and Discrimination between Different Biovars in Zinc-Contaminated Soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77  (13) 4626-4633.

Macdonald C.A., Singh, B.K., Peck, J.A., van Schaik, A.P., Hunter, L.C., Horswell, J. Campbell, C.D. and Speir, T.W. (2007) Long-term exposure to Zn-spiked sewage sludge alters soil community structure. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39 (2007), pp. 2576–2586.

Macdonald, C.A., Clark, I.M., Zhao, F-J., Hirsch, P., Singh, B.K. and McGrath, S.P. (2011)Long-term impacts of zinc and copper enriched sewage sludge additions on bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in arable and grassland soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43, 5, 932-941.

Macdonald, L. M., Singh, B. K, Thomas, N., Brewer, M. J., Campbell, C. D., Dawson, L. A. (2008) Microbial DNA profiling by multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for forensic comparison of soil and the influence of sample condition. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 105, (3) 813-821.

Moffett, B.F., Nicholson, F.A. Uwakwe, N. C., Chambers, B.J., Harris, J.A. and Hill, T.C.J. (2003). Zinc contamination decreases the bacterial diversity of agricultural soil. FEMS Microbial Ecology 43, 1, 13-19. 

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PhD thesis

Burgess, S. (2002) Substrate Utilisation profiling of Microbial Communities in Sewage Sludge Amended Soils. PhD. Thesis, University of Aberdeen.

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Reports and downloadable material relating to waste water sludge

Long Term Effects of Sewage Sludge Applications on Soil Fertility: Setting the results of SP0130 in a policy context.

Defra report: Review of Research on Recycling of Sewage Sludge to Agricultural Land

EPA - Environmental Regulations and Technology: Control of Pathogens and Vectors Attractions in Sewage Sludge

European Commission - Evaluation of sludge treatments for pathogen reduction

Department of the Environment: Code of Practice For Agricultural Use of Sewage Sludge

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Links to related external web sites




EEC general introduction to sewage

FAO: Agricultural uses of sewage sludge

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The James Hutton Research Institute is the result of the merger in April 2011 of MLURI and SCRI. This merger formed a new powerhouse for research into food, land use, and climate change.