Skip to navigation Skip to content

Soils@Hutton - Soil Classification

How are Soils Classified?

Fundamental to soil characterisation and mapping, is soil classification where like soils can be grouped according to key characteristics. Soil classification in Scotland is based on the recognition of morphological features and on the sequence and nature of different horizons within the soil profile.

The Scottish soil classification recognises 5 five divisions (immature, non-leached, leached, gleys and organic soils), 12 Major Soil Groups (MSG) and 48 Major Soil Sub-Groups (MSSG) along with a number of anthropogenic soil types, these are listed below.

Immature Soils

Name Simplified Description Description
1 Immature Soils Weakly developed soils Characterised by indistinct or weakly developed horizons, which, if developed, are generally restricted to surface organic horizons or surface mineral (A) horizons resting directly onto rock or little-altered parent material
1.1 Lithosols Shallow soils with rock <10 cm from the surface. Major soil group: Lithosols. Lithosols are restricted in depth and have continuous, coherent rock within 10cm of the surface. Where developed, generally only mineral A, organic (O or H) horizons are found although some intermediate organic-rich humose horizons also occur.
1.1.1 Rock Bare rock. Coherent rock with no soil development.
1.1.2 Brown lithosols Well drained shallow soils (<10cm) with a brown mineral topsoil. Lithosols with a thin (<10cm) mineral surface A horizon.
1.1.3 Humic lithosols Well drained shallow soils (<10cm) with an organic-rich (humose) mineral topsoil. Lithosols with a thin (<10cm) humose (organic-rich) surface Ah horizon.
1.1.4 Peaty lithosols Shallow (<10cm), wet soils with an organic surface layer. Lithosols with a thin (<10cm) organic surface O or H horizon.
1.2 Rankers Shallow soils with rock near the surface. Major soil group: Rankers. Rankers are shallow soils with either mineral A or organic H or O horizons more than 10cm thick and overlying noncalcareous rock or noncalcareous rubble. Weakly developed, incipient E and B horizons may be present.
1.2.1 Magnesian rankers Shallow soils with a mineral topsoil which is rich in magnesium on to rock. Magnesian rankers are shallow soils (but > 10cm) with a high magnesium content directly overlying ultrabasic rocks or rubble derived from ultrabasic rocks. These soils have a mineral A surface horizon.
1.2.2 Brown rankers Shallow soils with a brown coloured mineral topsoil on to rock. Brown rankers are shallow soils (but > 10cm) overlying noncalcareous rock or rock rubble with a mineral A horizon and occasionally a thin weakly developed B horizon.
1.2.3 Podzolic rankers Shallow soils with an organic or organic-rich (humose) surface layer overlying a thin, grey, leached layer on to rock. Podzolic rankers are shallow soils (but > 10cm) overlying noncalcareous rock or rock rubble with an organic-rich surface layer (Ah or H) and a thin weakly developed grey or dark grey, leached E horizon.
1.2.4 Gley rankers Shallow wet soils with a mineral topsoil over a thin weakly developed subsoil on to rock. Gley rankers are poorly drained shallow (but > 10cm) soils overlying noncalcareous rock or rock rubble with a mineral gleyed Ag horizon and occasionally a thin weakly developed gleyed Bg horizon
1.2.5 Humic rankers Shallow soils with an organic-rich (humose) surface layer overlying a weakly developed, thin subsoil on to rock. Humic rankers are shallow soils (but > 10cm) overlying noncalcareous rock or rock rubble with an organic-rich, humose Ah horizon and occasionally a thin weakly developed B horizon.
1.2.6 Peaty rankers Shallow wet soils with an organic surface layer <50cm thick overlying a weakly developed, wet subsoil on to rock. Peaty rankers are shallow soils (but > 10cm) overlying noncalcareous rock or rock rubble with an organic O horizon up to 50 cm thick and occasionally a thin weakly developed B horizon.
1.3 Regosols Well drained, weakly developed soils often with a mineral topsoil and no distinct layering in the subsoil. Major soil group: Regosols. Regosols are soils developed on unconsolidated material and can often have a weakly developed mineral A horizon.
1.3.1 Scree Broken rock fragments. Unconsolidated rock rubble which may have some organic-rich interstitial material.
1.3.2 Shingle Pebbles. Unconsolidated beach deposits comprising mainly pebbles.
1.3.3 Calcareous regosols Well drained, shelly and sandy soils often with a mineral topsoil and no distinct layering in the subsoil. Calcareous regosols can often have a weakly developed mineral A horizon and contains free calcium carbonate in the parent material which is generally windblown shelly sand.
1.3.4 Noncalcareous regosols Well drained, weakly developed sandy soils often with a mineral topsoil and no distinct layering in the subsoil. Noncalcareous regosols can often have a weakly developed mineral A horizon and lack free calcium carbonate in the parent material which is generally windblown sandy deposits.
1.4 Alluvial Soils Weakly developed soils developed in recent river, estuarine or marine deposits. Major soil group: Alluvial soils. Alluvial soils are developed in recently deposited freshwater, estuarine or marine alluvium and often have little profile development though some alluvial soils can develop mineral A horizons, organic O horizons or a humose organic-rich Ah horizon with some weakly developed subsoil features.
1.4.1 Saline alluvial soils Soils developed on marine or estuarine deposits periodically inundated by salt water. Saline alluvial soils are developed on marine and estuarine alluvium found along shorelines that are periodically inundated by the sea. They have high levels of exchangeable sodium and are gleyed.
1.4.2 Mineral alluvial soils Soils developed in recent river deposits with either an organic-rich (humose) or mineral topsoil. These soil have a wide range of draining conditions from brightly coloured, well drained to wet soils with dull colours and rust-coloured flecks. Mineral alluvial soils are developed on riverine alluvium found along streams and rivers and have a mineral A horizon (occasionally an organic-rich Ah horizon) and, if present, weakly developed subsoil features though gleying can be prominent in poorly drained alluvial soils.
1.4.3 Peaty alluvial soils Soil developed in recent river deposits with a peaty surface layer or a series of buried organic layers. Peaty alluvial soils are developed on riverine alluvium found along streams and rivers and have an organic O horizon less than 50cm thick. Occasionally the O horizon is interbedded with freshwater alluvial deposits. The soils are poorly drained and often have a high watertable.

Non-Leached Soils

Name Simplified Description Description
2 Non-Leached Soils Soils with high amounts of calcium Non-leached soils are characterised by the presence of free calcium carbonate and have a neutral or alkaline reaction. The lower horizons may show some gleying
2.1 Rendzinas Shallow calcareous soils developed on limestone rock. Major soil group: Rendzinas. Rendzinas are shallow soils developed on limestone rock or limestone rubble and are more than 10cm thick. They generally have a mineral A or an organic-rich horizon directly on to rock or rock rubble or, occasionally, weathered rock.
2.1.1 Brown rendinzas Well drained soils with bright colours and a brown mineral topsoil high in calcium with calcareous rock close to the surface. Brown rendzinas have a mineral A horizon more than 10cm thick directly overlying coherent limestone rock or limestone rubble.
2.1.2 Humic rendzinas Well drained soils with bright colours and an organic-rich (humose) mineral topsoil high in calcium with calcareous rock close to the surface. Humic rendzinas have an organic-rich or humose Ah horizon more than 10cm thick directly overlying coherent limestone rock or limestone rubble.
2.2 Calcareous Soils Soils with a high level of calcium. Major soil group: Calcareous soils. Calcareous soils have developed in calcareous parent materials and contain free calcium carbonate within the soil profile which typically has a well developed B horizon overlying the parent material C horizon.
2.2.1 Brown calcareous soils Well drained generally sandy soils (often shell fragments) with a brown mineral topsoil and brightly coloured subsoil. Brown calcareous soils have a mineral A horizon merging into a brighter B horizon but show no signs of translocated sesquioxides over a paler C horizon. The soils contain carbonate material derived from shell fragments or rock.
2.2.2 Humic calcareous soils Well drained generally sandy soils (often shell fragments) with an organic-rich (humose) mineral topsoil and brightly coloured subsoil. Humic calcareous soils have an organic-rich or humose Ah horizon merging into a brighter B horizon but show no signs of translocated sesquioxides over a paler C horizon. The soils contain carbonate material derived from shell fragments or rock.

Leached Soils

Name Simplified Description Description
3 Leached Soils Soils low amounts of calcium Leached soils are characterised by an absence of free lime and an acid reaction in their A and B horizons. Some of the horizons may show signs of gleying indicating periodic but infrequent waterlogging but the dominant soil forming process is leaching.
3.1 Magnesian Soils Soils with a high level of magnesium. Major soil group: Magnesian soils. Magnesian soils have a high magnesium content and a mineral A horizon which may have a high organic matter content (Ah) and is generally dark brown. Only soils developed from ultrabasic rocks are included in this Major Soil Group.
3.1.1 Brown magnesian soils Well drained soils which are high in magnesium and have a brown to dark brown mineral topsoil. Brown magnesian soils have a high magnesium content and a mineral A horizon and is generally dark brown.
3.1.2 Humic magnesian soils Well drained soils which are high in magnesium and have an organic-rich (humose) topsoil. Humic magnesian soils have a high magnesium content and an organic-rich or humose Ah horizon which is generally dark brown.
3.2 Brown soils Moderately acid soils with brown mineral topsoils and brown or yellowish brown subsoils. Major soil group: Brown soils. Brown soils have brown to yellowish brown B horizons which may contain moderate levels of organic matter and a mineral A which may have high levels of organic matter (humose Ah horizon). These soils are characterised by gradual changes between horizons and are moderately acidic.
3.2.1 Brown earths Moderately acid soils with brown mineral topsoils and brown or yellowish brown subsoils where freely drained but where less well drained the soils are duller and subsoils have rust-coloured flecks or grey patches. Brown earths are free or imperfectly drained soils with a mineral A horizon overlying weakly developed brown, reddish brown or yellowish brown subsoils. The soils are often moderately acidic unless developed on base-rich parent materials. Where the soils are affected by periodic waterlogging, the lower horizons may exhibit gleying (presence of ochreous mottles and grey patches) and the matrix may be slightly duller in colour.
3.2.2 Brown podzolic soils Moderately acid soils with brown mineral topsoils and orange-brown subsoils where freely drained but where less well drained the soils are duller and subsoils have rust-coloured flecks or grey patches. Brown podzolic soils are free or imperfectly drained soils with a mineral A horizon overlying yellowish brown or strong brown sesquioxide-rich subsoils. The soils are moderately acidic. Where the soils are affected by periodic waterlogging, the lower horizons may exhibit gleying (presence of ochreous mottles and grey patches) and be slightly duller in colour.
3.3 Podzols Acid soils with bright, orangey-brown coloured subsoils and/or dark brown to black, organic rich subsoils. Major soil group: Podzols. In the uncultivated state, Podzols have an organic surface horizon (H or O) overlying a grey, leached E horizon and a brightly coloured, strong brown B horizon where sesquioxides (iron and aluminium) have accumulated. When cultivated, the surface organic horizons and the bleached E horizon are often mixed forming, through time, a mineral A horizon.
3.3.1 Humus podzols Well drained acid soils with a dark brown to black organic rich subsoil. Humus podzols have a pale grey leached E horizon and a thick dark brown or black Bh horizon beneath an organic H or organic-rich Ah horizon. The Bh horizon is formed when organic colloidal material is translocated down the profile and accumulates in the subsoil. This material can coat the mineral grains and can result in the development of a cemented horizon. Where cultivated, the soils have a brown mineral topsoil.
3.3.2 Humus-iron podzols Well drained acid soils with bright colours and a thin organic surface layer overlying a grey subsoil layer when not cultivated otherwise the soil has a mineral topsoil. The deeper subsoil is often orangey-brown and/or dark brown and occasionally, when the soil is less well-drained, there are some rust-coloured flecks in the subsoils. Humus-iron podzols are generally freely drained and have surface organic horizons (when not cultivated) overlying a pale grey leached E horizon. Below the E horizon there is often a dark brown to black organic-rich Bh, a strong brown sesquioxide-rich Bs or a combination of both (Bhs). Some humus-iron podzols have some degree of waterlogging, generally in the lower horizons resulting in weak gleying with ochreous mottling and grey patches. When cultivated the
3.3.3 Iron podzols Well drained soils with bright colours and a thin organic surface layer when not cultivated otherwise, the soil has a mineral topsoil where cultivated. The subsoil is often orangey-brown and occasionally, where the soil is less well drained, there are some rust-coloured flecks and grey patches in the subsoils. Iron podzols are generally freely drained and have surface organic horizons (when not cultivated) overlying a pale grey leached E horizon. Below the E horizon there is a strong brown sesquioxide-rich Bs horizon. Some iron podzols have some degree of waterlogging, generally in the lower horizons resulting in weak gleying with ochreous mottles and grey patches. When cultivated the upper organic layers and the E horizon are rarely present and there is a mineral
3.3.4 Peaty podzols Well drained acid soils with bright colours and an organic surface layer. The subsoil is often orangey-brown with dark brown or black organic-rich patches and occasionally, where the soil is less well drained, there are some rust-coloured flecks in the subsoils. Peaty podzols have an organic surface layer (O or H horizon) up to 50cm thick overlying a grey, leached E Horizon. There may be a dark brown to black Bh horizon where translocated organic matter has accumulated and a strong brown sesquioxide-rich Bs or a combination of both (Bhs). Some peaty podzols may have some degree of waterlogging, generally in the lower horizons resulting in weak gleying with ochreous mottling and grey patches.
3.3.5 Peaty gleyed podzols Acid soils with a wet peaty surface layer overlying a wet, greyish subsoil. These soils often have a thin iron -pan which restricts the flow of water deeper into the soil. Peaty gleyed podzols have an organic surface layer (O horizon) up to 50cm thick overlying a grey, gleyed and leached Eg Horizon . There may be a dark brown to black Bh horizon where translocated organic matter has accumulated above an iron pan (Bf). This pan is often continuous and restricts the percolation of water resulting in waterlogging of the upper horizons. Below this pan there is often a strong brown sesquioxide-rich Bs which may be weakly developed on
3.3.6 Subalpine (Orohemiarctic) Soils with a thin peaty surface layer often with greyish subsoil layer over bright orangey-brown subsoil and found in exposed sites. Subalpine (or Orohemiarctic) podzols have a surface organic horizon (O or H) overlying a leached, grey E horizon which may have high levels of organic matter. Below the E there is often a dark brown to black organic-rich Bh horizon. The iron pan is generally weakly developed and discontinuous and the underlying sesquioxide-enriched Bs horizon is often thin and weakly developed. These soils occur in exposed sites where the upper layers are often affected by fre
3.3.7 Alpine (Oroarctic) Well drained soils of high mountain tops and severely exposed sites, weakly developed layering and very loose. Alpine (or Oroarctic) podzols have either a surface organic horizon (H) or an organic-rich mineral Ah horizon. There is generally a grey leached E horizon underlying the H but is generally absent where the surface horizon is mineral. There is often a dark brown to black organic-rich Bh horizon where small stones are often coated with colloidal organic material. Below the Bh there can be a weakly developed dark reddish brown Bs horizon. The soil is greatly affe

Gleys

Name Simplified Description Description
4 Gleys Wet soils Gleyed soils are characterised by permanent or intermittent waterlogging which often alters the inherent soil colours. The waterlogging can be due to inhibited drainage of surface water or to the presence of groundwater.
4.1 Gleys Soils that are periodically or permanently waterlogged. Major soil group: Gleys develop under conditions of permanent or intermittent waterlogging. These soils often have a pale Eg horizon below which the inherent soil colours are often altered and can appear greyish with greenish and bluish tinges. The soil colour appears dull overall and there are often grey gley patches and ped faces as well as rusty, ochreous mottles. Soil affected by surface water generally have more gleying in the upper horizons which decrease
4.1.1 Saline gleys Wet soils affected by salt spray with a mineral or thin organic topsoil. Saline gleys have high contents of exchangeable sodium and magnesium. The horizons generally consist of a thin organic O horizon or a greyish brown mineral Ag horizon (indicating strong gleying). Below these horizons there is often a grey or brownish grey gleyed horizon (Eg) overlying a gleyed Bg horizon which often has strongly developed prismatic or columnar structure with organic staining on the ped faces.
4.1.2 Calcareous gleys Wet soils with high levels of calcium carbonate and a mineral topsoil. Calcareous gleys contain free calcium carbonate in the gleyed subsoils (Bg and Cg horizons) and have a mineral Ag horizon.
4.1.3 Magnesian gleys Wet soils with a high level of magnesium and a mineral topsoil. Magnesian gleys have high levels of magnesium and the surface horizon (A or Ah) is often dark brown in colour and can have high levels of organic matter. The subsoils are gleyed (Bg and Cg horizons).
4.1.4 Noncalcareous gleys Wet soils with mineral topsoil. Noncalcareous gleys have no free calcium carbonate in the upper horizons of the profile. There is often a gleyed pale grey Eg horizon below a mineral Ag horizon. The Eg horizon is often well defined in semi-natural soils but may be absent in cultivated soils. Below the Eg there are gleyed subsoil horizons (Bg and Cg). Where the gleying is more intense in the Bg horizon than the Cg, then the soils are generally more affected by poor drainage of surface water but
4.1.5 Humic gleys Wet soils with an organic-rich (humose) topsoil. Humic gleys have no free calcium carbonate in the upper horizons of the profile. There is often a gleyed pale grey Eg horizon below a gleyed organic-rich, humose Ahg horizon. This Eg horizon is often well defined in semi-natural soils but may be absent in the rare cases where these soils are cultivated. Below the Eg there are gleyed subsoil horizons (Bg and Cg). Where the gleying is more intense in the Bg horizon than the Cg, then the soils are generally more a
4.1.6 Peaty gleys Wet soils with an organic (peaty) surface layer. Peaty gleys have no free calcium carbonate in the upper horizons of the profile. There is often a gleyed pale grey Eg horizon below an organic O horizon (which is less than 50cm thick). Below the Eg there are gleyed subsoil horizons (Bg and Cg). Where the gleying is more intense in the Bg horizon than the Cg, then the soils are generally more affected by poor drainage of surface water but in those soils where the Cg is more intensely gleyed (grey and bluish gre
4.1.7 Subalpine (Orohemiarctic) Wet mountain soils with loose upper layers due to periodic freezing. Subalpine (or Orohemiarctic) gleys have an organic surface O horizon which is affected by freeze/thaw processes and is often well aerated and 'fluffy'. The soils are further characterised by wet subsoils and are predominantly affected by localised, shallow groundwater (eg water held in rock-based hollows).
4.1.8 Alpine (Oroarctic) Wet mountain soils that are quite loose due to periodic freezing. Alpine (or Oroarctic) gleys have an organic-rich surface horizon (O or Ah) and gleyed subsoils. The soil fabric is generally loose due to freeze/thaw processes and the subsoil waterlogging is generally due to localised ponded, shallow groundwater in rock-based hollows.

Organic Soils

Name Simplified Description Description
5 Organic Soils Peat soils Organic soils are formed under waterlogged conditions or where the natural decomposition rates of organic material are significantly slower than the rates of accumulation. These soils have more than 60% organic matter and exceed 50cm in thickness.
5.1 Basin peats Poorly drained lowland peat soils with no mineral layer within 50 cm of the surface. Major soil group: Basin peats. Basin peats develop in waterlogged conditions in topographic basins confined on all sides by mineral ground. The peat may develop in such a manner that it forms a dome shape whose peak is at a greater height than the edges; this is called a raised moss.
5.1.1 Eutrophic basin peat Poorly drained, nutrient rich lowland peat soils with no mineral layer within 50 cm of the surface. Eutrophic basin peat forms in topgraphic basins and is fed by waters that are rich in minerals. These peats support a wide range of plant species.
5.1.2 Mesotrophic basin peat Poorly drained lowland peat soils with no mineral layer within 50 cm of the surface and moderately nutrient rich. Mesotrophic basin peat forms in topgraphic basins and is fed by waters that are moderately rich in minerals. These peats usually supports a natural cover of plant communities with a high proportion of grasses and herbs.
5.1.3 Dystrophic basin peat Poorly drained acidic and nutrient poor lowland peat soils with no mineral layer within 50 cm of the surface. Dystrophic basin peat forms in topgraphic basins and is fed by waters that are poor in minerals. These peats usually supports vegetation communities dominated by heathers and nutrient -poor grasses. Where the bog has risen to the extent that the groundwater has little influence, the dominant vegetation community is heathland.
5.2 Semi-confined peats Poorly drained partly confined peat soils with no mineral layer within 50 cm of the surface. Major soil group: Semi-confined peats. Semi-confined peats develop in waterlogged conditions in valleys and terraces, between ridges, morainic mounds and drumlins and have at least one natural drainage outlet.
5.2.1 Eutrophic semi-confined peat Poorly drained, partly confined, nutrient-rich peat soils with no mineral layer within 50 cm of the surface. Eutrophic semi-confined peat is fed by waters that are rich in minerals and support a wide range of plant species.
5.2.2 Mesotrophic semi-confined peat Poorly drained partly confined peat soils with no mineral layer within 50 cm of the surface and moderately nutrient rich. Mesotrophic semi-confined peat is fed by waters that are moderately rich in minerals and usually supports a natural cover of plant communities with a high proportion of grasses and herbs.
5.2.3 Dystrophic semi-confined peat Poorly drained partly confined, acidic and nutrient poor peat soils with no mineral layer within 50 cm of the surface. Dystrophic semi-confined peat is fed by waters that are poor in minerals and usually supports vegetation communities dominated by heathers and nutrient -poor grasses.
5.3 5.3 Blanket peats Poorly drained upland blanket peat soils with no mineral layer or rock with 50 cm of the surface. Major soil group: Blanket peats are unconfined and 'blanket' the underlying topography. They form in wet, humid areas where there is an excess of rainfall over evaporation and where cool conditions inhibit the breakdown of organic material.
5.3.1 Eutrophic blanket peat Poorly drained, nutrient rich upland blanket peat soils with no mineral layer within 50 cm of the surface. Eutrophic blanket peat occurs around spring lines that are rich in minerals and support a wide range of plant species.
5.3.2 Mesotrophic blanket peat Poorly drained upland peat soils with no mineral layer within 50 cm of the surface and moderately nutrient rich. Mesotrophic blanket peat occurs around spring lines that are moderately rich in minerals and usually supports a wide range of plant species with a high proportion of grasses and herbs.
5.3.3 Dystrophic blanket peat Poorly drained, acid, nutrient poor upland blanket peat soils with no mineral layer within 50 cm of the surface. Dystrophic blanket peat is largely rain-fed and mineral-poor and usually supports vegetation communities dominated by heathers and nutrient -poor grasses.

Man made and other soils

Name Simplified Description Description
6 Man made and other soils Man made soils. Soils in which the natural soil processes have been profoundly disturbed by man beyond simple cultivation or when man has created a new soil.
6.1 Restored soils Soils which have been restored after a previous and usually disruptive land use. Major soil group: Restored soils are where the soil material from a site is reinstated following mineral or other extraction. The replaced material may be native to the site (having been stored for the period of the extraction) or have been brought in from other areas.
6.1.1 Open cast Reinstated, man-made soils over former open cast mines. Open cast is where coal or other minerals have been extracted and the soil at the site reinstated, generally by using the original soil material. This material often undergoes various processes during the removal, storage and replacement resulting in a severely altered soil profile.
6.1.2 Non open cast Reinstated, man-made soils over other than former open cast mines. Non-open cast soils are any other reinstated soil eg waste tips. This material often undergoes various processes during the reinstatement process resulting in a severely altered soil profile.
6.2 Raw spoil Current spoil heaps from past or present mineral extraction. Major soil group: Raw spoil. Raw spoil, often material left over from an mineral extraction process and which acts like new parent material in which pedogenesis can occur
6.2.1 Mine spoil Mine spoil heaps. Mine spoil is subject to soil forming processes such as leaching and accumulation of soil carbon but can also be potentially toxic to plants.
6.2.2 Quarry spoil Quarry spoil heaps. Quarry spoil is subject to soil forming processes such as leaching and accumulation of soil carbon.
6.3 Anthropogenic soils Man made soils. Major soil group: Anthropogenic soils are any soils where man deliberately manipulates the environment to access new areas of land by adding material or by excluding estuarine and marine waters to expose the underlying sediment.
6.3.1 Made up Ground Made up group primarily for buildings or construction yards. Made up ground comprises any major terrestrial land modification using natural materials or reclamation of coastal areas for non biomass production.
6.3.2 Warp or polder soils Land reclaimed from estuaries or the sea specifically for growing plants. Warp or polder soils develop on land reclaimed from estuarine or marine sediments and intended for biomass production.
6.4 Buried soils Buried soils where a well developed soil profile has been deliberately buried by man or by natural processes. Major soil group: Buried soils. Buried soils occur where an existing well developed soil profile is deliberately or accidently buried by man or by natural processes.
6.4 Buried (mssg) soils Buried soils where a well developed soil profile has been deliberately buried by man or by natural processes. Buried soils are found in archaeological sites where natural processes through time have deposited and accumulated material above, where material has been deliberately placed on land by humans or where mass movement episodes deposit material on top of an existing soil profile. Often the soil profile beneath the overlying material still retains its original morphology and can be classified as such.

 

Learning & Resources

Tags


Printed from /learning/soilshutton/soil-classification on 16/10/18 12:44:44 AM

The James Hutton Research Institute is the result of the merger in April 2011 of MLURI and SCRI. This merger formed a new powerhouse for research into food, land use, and climate change.